Rites of Hajj and Umrah – An overview
Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam. Muslims perform Hajj in the month of zil-hajj at the holy city of Makkah. It is mandatory for all Muslims once in their life time, who are financially stable and physically fit. On contrary Performing Umrah is not mandatory it is Sunnah. Muslims can perform umrah in any month of the Islamic year execpt days of Hajj.
Rituals of Umrah:
The basic rites of umrah are putting Ihram, after taking bath. After entering the great mosque pilgrim recite Talbiyaah (“Labbayk, Allahumma Labbayk. Labbayk. La shareeka laka. Labbayk. Innal-hamda wan-n’imata laka wal-mulk. La shareeka lak.“) till starting the Tawaf. Tawaf must be start after kissing the Black stone or if one cannot kiss so just raise his/her hands toward black stone and kiss them. Circumambulate Kabaah seven times for Tawaf. After Tawaf offer Two Rakat Prayers near the Station of Ibrahim (A.S). Pilgrim will quench their thirst with ZamZam and then go for Sa’ee on Safa and Marwa. Sa’ee is going back and forth for seven times between the two mountains. It starts from Mount Safa and ends on Mount Marwah. When the pilgrims done with sa’ee they shave their head or trim their hairs and put off their Ihram because they are done with their Umrah.
Forms of Hajj:
The three forms of Hajj are Tamattu’, Ifraad and Qiran.
Tamattu’: In this form of Hajj, pilgrim wears Ihram only for Umrah in the month of Hajj. It means on the arrival of pilgrim in Makkah, he/she perform Tawaf and Sa’ee for Umrah. After Sa’ee the pilgrim cut their nails, trims their hairs or shaves their head and put off the Ihram. On the eight day of Zil-Hajj (The day of Tarwiya), pilgrim put their Ihram only for Hajj and perform their Hajj.
Ifraad: Ifraad is another form of Hajj in which the pilgrim wears Ihram only for Hajj. When pilgrims arrive in Makkah they perform tawaf and sa’ee for Hajj. Pilgrims does not shave or trim their hairs because they are still in the state of Ihram. They remain in the state of Ihram until they stone Jamrah on Eid day.
Qiran: It means that the pilgrim wears Ihram for Hajj and Umrah both. Obligations for Qiran are same as performing Ifraad. Expect slaughter is mandatory for the pilgrims who perform Qiran but one who performs Ifraad is exempted from this.
The day of Tarwiyah (8th Zil-Hajj):
On the day of Tarwiyah Mutamatti’ wears their Ihram for Hajj. All the pilgrims, who wear Ihram for qiran, ifraad and Tamattu’ leave for Mina to perform the prayer of Duhar. Pilgrim spends their night in Mina and leave Mina after they perform their Fajar Prayer.
The Day of Arafaat (9th Zil-Hajj):
Pilgrims go to Mosque Nimrah where they attend the sermon of Hajj. They offer the join prayer of Duhar and Asar at the time of Duhar. After prayer pilgrim proceed towards Jabal-e-Rehmat at Arafaat and remain their till sunset. Pilgrims leave Arafaat after sunset and move toward Muzdalifa. In Muzdalifa, pilgrims offer the prayer of Magrib and Isha at the time of Isha. They stay in Muzdalifa until they perform the prayers of Fajar.
Youm An-Nahr (10th Zil-Hajj):
On 10th Zil-Hajj pilgrims offer the prayer of Fajar in Muzdalifah and stop their till the day considerably lighten. Before the sunrise they again proceed to Mina to Stone Jamrat Al-Aqaba with seven pebbles. After that pilgrims slaughter animals, shave or trim their hairs and make At-tahallul Al-asghar (partial release from Ihram). Pilgrims come back to Makkah to perform Tawaf Al-Ifada. Those who wear ihram for Tamattu’ have to perform Sa’ee as well and the other two forms (Ifraad and Qiran) are exempted from this obligation. After Tawaf pilgrim accomplished At-Tahallul Al-Akbar (Full release from Ihram). Pilgrims return to Mina and spend their night in Mina.
The days of Tashriq (11th 12th and 13th Zil-Hajj):
First day of Tashriq spent in Mina by pilgrims till midday. Later on that day the pilgrim go and stone all three stoning sites with seven bean size stones. Pilgrims spend their 2nd and 3rd day of Tashriq in the same manner. After stoning come back to Makkah and stay there. But when you intended to go your home do Tawaf-e-Wida and offer Two Rakat prayer. Remember that Tawaq-e-Wida is mandatory to complete your Hajj.